Chen Lilong (technical director, Jiangxi Tian Jia Industrial Co., Ltd.)
Xiao Shiping (general manager, Jiangxi Tian Jia Industrial Co., Ltd.)
[Abstract] Quinocetone is a quinoxaline-based synthetic antimicrobial agent with broad antibacterial spectrum, safe and efficient use, and is widely used in adult and young livestock, poultry and aquatic animals. Quinocetone can significantly promote animal growth and improve feed conversion efficiency. In this paper, the physical and chemical properties, synthesis, pharmacology, metabolism, toxicology, detection and application in animal breeding of quinolone were discussed, and the application prospect of quinolone was prospected.
[Key words]: (q); potassium;
[Abstract] Quinocetone, a newly developed pharmic feed additive, is one of the quinoxaline antimicrobic agents with broad antimicrobic spectrum, high safety and significant effects. It can be used in adult and young domestic animals, poultry and aquatic livestocks, so as to promote the growth of an Imls and enhance the feed conversion rate significant. Herein the physical properties, synthesis, pharmacology, metabolism, toxicology, detection and application in animal production of Quinocetone were reviewed.
[Key words] Quinocetone; feed; pharmic feed additive
Quinocetone is a new antimicrobial agent first developed by Lanzhou Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences. It was officially approved by the Ministry of Agriculture as a new national veterinary drug on August 26, 2003. Quinacetone has a broad antibacterial spectrum, no toxic side effects, no accumulation, no residue, no triple, safe and efficient use, its preparation as a growth-promoting feed drug additive, with strong antibacterial effect, promote the growth of livestock and poultry obvious advantages. This * is not only suitable for pigs, but also for poultry and aquatic animals, especially for young animals and poultry. It is a new feed medicine additive with wide application value.
Physicochemical properties of 1
The chemical name of quinolone is 3-methyl-2-styrene-keto-quinoxaline-1,4-dioxide. The molecular formula is C8H14N2O3. The structural formula is shown in Fig. 1a. The molecular weight of quinolone is 306.5, and the melting point is 182.5-189 C. It is light yellow or yellowish-green crystalline or amorphous powder, odorless, odorless, insoluble in water, slightly soluble in some organic solvents. It is sensitive to light and easy to photochemical reaction, but its 2 side chain is not stable.
Synthesis of 2 (q)
In the patent literature on the synthesis of the product, two synthetic routes were reported (Zhao Rongcai et al. 1998). The process line is synthesized from benzo furazan as raw material by one-step reaction with benzyl acetylacetone. The process is simple, but the reaction mixture must be aged overnight and crystallized, the main reaction material phenylidene acetylacetone is not readily available, and the sodium butoxide catalyst used is expensive and unstable, corrosive and toxic. Therefore, the preparation of the process laboratory is feasible, and it is not desirable to be converted into actual industrial production scale. The second process is also based on benzofurazan as the starting material, respectively, with 2,4-pentanedione (the first step) and benzaldehyde (the second step) two-step reaction synthesis. The raw materials used in the process are easy to obtain and suitable for industrial production, but the catalyst used is sodium methoxide, which is inflammable, corrosive and toxic, and the price is high. It is difficult to separate after the reaction, resulting in poor operability. Dai Shucheng et al. (2005) through repeated experiments, mainly through the selection of other cheap and easy-to-obtain raw materials, salt catalysts and simple solvents, the above patent synthesis method was improved, so that the yield of the reaction was 85% (process 1), 87% (process 2, first step) and 83% (process 2, second step), respectively, to quinoline. The practical industrial production of ketone has greatly enhanced the operability, shorter reaction time and higher yield, thus reducing the production cost.
Pharmacological action of 3.
Quinacetones are Quinoxalines whose nucleus is quinoxaline-1,4-dioxide. Other veterinary drugs with the same structure include Olaquindox, Carbadox and Mequindox (Fig. 1b, c, d). Compared with other similar drugs, quinolone has more stable side chains and is not easy to break, so it is not easy to be absorbed and metabolized by animals. It retains its antibacterial and growth promoting effect, but its toxicity is greatly reduced. The mechanism of action of quinolone is similar to that of quinolone. It can selectively inhibit the growth and reproduction of many pathogenic bacteria (especially Gram-negative bacteria) in the digestive tract. Meanwhile, it does not affect the beneficial bacteria in the intestine and protects the intestinal wall from pathogenic microorganisms or parasites. Therefore, quinolone can effectively control piglet diarrhea and poultry pasteurellosis. Wait. Quinacetone inhibits harmful bacteria in intestinal tract and keeps beneficial bacteria in it. Quinacetone can increase digestion and absorption of various feeds in intestinal tract. Quinacetone is conducive to promoting the growth of the body and improving the utilization rate of feed.
Pharmacokinetics of 4.
Li Jianyong et al. (2000) gave quinolone to broilers (500mg/kg * weight) and pigs (300mg/kg body weight) for a single dose. Blood samples were collected at different time points from 0.25 to 72h after administration, and detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, quinquinone minimum detection concentration of 4 g/ml). After taking orally, ketone acts on the digestive tract and is not easily absorbed by the body. Li Jianyong and other * (2005a) administered a dose of 30mg/kg to the pigs, giving them half the dose.