In recent years, China's pig industry has developed rapidly, at the same time, the incidence of pig disease is rising, and environmental pollution is becoming increasingly serious. There are also some problems in the quality of pork products, pig production brings economic benefits, but also brings serious environmental pollution problems. * therefore, healthy breeding of live pigs has become the focus of attention.
* the concept of healthy pig breeding
In the mid-1990s, environmental pollution, frequent epidemics, product quality and safety problems in China's aquaculture industry became increasingly serious. The concept of healthy aquaculture was first applied in marine aquaculture. In recent years, it has infiltrated and improved into freshwater aquaculture, pig farming and poultry farming, and has become the most popular hotspot in the aquaculture field. Topic of conversation. At present, there is still a lack of clear understanding of the connotation and objectives of pig healthy breeding, and a lack of systematic research on pig healthy breeding model and breeding theory. Lu Fengjun and others believe that pig healthy breeding is a kind of breeding mode with high economic, social and ecological benefits. In order to protect pig health, human health and ecological environment, according to the biological characteristics of different pig breeds, animal physiology, nutrition, ecology, supply chain management and systematics are the main objectives. According to this, the integrated technology, materials, methods, equipment, facilities and techniques which are beneficial to pig health and ecological environment protection are utilized to provide good ecological environment and safe nutrient feed for pigs, so as to minimize the occurrence of diseases during their growth and development, and finally produce pollution-free or green pigs. * color, organic pig products.
Cheng Yanfang and others believe that the meaning of healthy farming includes four levels: first, the health of animals in the process of feeding; second, the health of breeders and workers in the process of feeding; third, the environmental health in the process of feeding; fourth, the health of consumers in the final farming products. The author believes that the concept of healthy pig farming is developing, and its objective value is also developing. With the changes of the times, it has jumped out of the simple material level of providing healthy pork products for the society. In the spiritual level, more importantly, it guarantees the social public health security. Healthy pig farming is also a dynamic concept. Its connotation and denotation change with the development of society, the progress of science and technology, and the constant change of human health demand. At present, healthy pig farming includes at least four aspects: ecological balance, resource optimization, animal health and product green.
In foreign countries, although the concept of healthy pig farming has not been explicitly put forward, with the frequent occurrence of safety and hygiene problems of livestock and poultry products in domestic and foreign consumer markets in recent years, all countries in the world have paid universal attention to environmental protection, food safety and animal welfare issues. Animal breeds, feed, feeding and management, veterinary hygiene, environmental control, slaughtering and processing, enterprise management and marketing and other aspects of the highly integrated development of pre-natal, mid-natal and post-natal animal husbandry has become the main mode of development in developed countries, high-quality, efficient, safe and environmental protection has become the pursuit of animal husbandry industry in various countries. The common goal of seeking.
Two * characteristics of healthy pig breeding in China
(1) lack of mature healthy pig breeding mode *
In the past 20 years, pig health breeding has made great progress in China. Local governments and companies have tried and applied various new models according to the actual situation in different places. However, there is still a lack of mature pig health breeding model in China. Through on-the-spot investigation in Sichuan and Yunnan, Fang Jianhe has summed up four healthy breeding modes, namely "six-party cooperation", "eight-unification", "eight-unification" improvement mode and simplified equipment transformation mode. The core of these four modes is to take food processing enterprises as the leader, market-oriented and lead. * guide and drive feed production and live pig breeding. But the biggest problem is that companies and farmers rely too much on financial institutions and guarantee companies, thus limiting development. Through the comparative study of the "company + Standard + technology + base + farmer" eco-farming mode carried out by three animal husbandry enterprises, Huo Xue holds that the application of the pig eco-farming mode can realize the specialization of pig production, increase farmers'income, solve the problem of fecal pollution to a certain extent, and realize the enterprises and farmers. Farmers and ecological environment win the three sides. At the same time, the study pointed out that in order to promote the development of ecological breeding model smoothly, we should restrain farmers'honest feeding management, enhance the company's market anti-risk ability, strengthen publicity and encourage green consumption and so on.
Through the study on healthy breeding mode of sunny pig house, the survival rate of piglets, weaning total weight, weaning * * * weight, daily weight gain of fattening pigs and daily gain of fattening pigs have been greatly improved. Meanwhile, the temperature and humidity and the concentration of harmful gases in the piggery have been effectively improved in winter. This kind of aquaculture mode has not been widely promoted in China. Xu Ziwei introduced the concept of SEW (Segregated Early Weaning) in the international pig industry in view of the continuous construction of pig farms and the continuous infection of epidemic diseases in China. The results showed that the performance of SEW pigs was greatly improved, the weight gain of 14-75 days old was increased by 22%-67%, the survival rate was increased by 16%, and the performance of the whole pig farm was better than the precondition of purification. However, the promotion of SEW technology in China is still limited by pig farm layout technology, nutritional level and management technology. There are many healthy pig breeding models based on circular economy.